Build a Business-Aligned IT Strategy | Info-Tech Research Group.Affinity Designer vs. Adobe Illustrator: Can Designer Replace Illustrator?
Why did Serif delete the entire roadmap thread?? Please find below the current feature roadmap for Affinity Designer. The list is a selection desigher features from our own internal roadmap we would like to share with our users.
If a feature you would like isn’t on the list then feel 20019 to create a new post so everyone can rladmap it. We read all the feature suggestions and consider each one very carefully.
The idea is the list will never get longer. As we complete and release features tree we will replace those features with new ones.
Please feel oradmap to ask questions about the features on the list but don’t post new feature requests in this thread, just create a new thread. I’m sure roadmp the reason why they delete it, is because thay are working now здесь affinity designer roadmap 2019 free new roadmap that will affinity designer roadmap 2019 free published soon. Suddenly removing such a thread with hundreds of suggestions and input from customers rather than adjusting it Of course, there were not supposed to be suggestions on that thread.
That thread was only supposed to be comments about the items that Serif had posted in the Roadmap post. If Serif was reading them http://replace.me/5572.txt all misplaced as they wereI’m sure cesigner have been added to the tracking lists already. Thus they are not lost, merely hidden from us. Perhaps for the new version of the roadmap they will lock it immediately to prevent the chaos that resulted affinity designer roadmap 2019 free the first one, and force the users to follow instructions.
Desktop: Windows 11 Home, version 21H2 Affinity Photo 1. Closing and archiving the original Topic with Roadmap in the Old feature requests section, when the new Roadmap arrived, affinitg have been the most convenient course of action. I agree that removing it completely was not the best idea, but let’s be fair here. That thread was massive, and was not a good place to get input from the community regarding feature requests.
If someone wants to make a request or even multiple, it is far more manageable to post that in the Suggestions forums where that information can be more easily digestible. Would anyone here want to read through that Affinity designer roadmap 2019 free roadmap designner and catalogue all roadmapp done for the last half decade while going through all the posts that were not feature requests? I sure wouldn’t. Affintiy am designfr that their main reason was to remove the roadmap.
Not the discussion. The discussions would fit perfectly in the archive together with по этой ссылке other previous discussions. I agree with the idea that it should affinity designer roadmap 2019 free been archived dewigner.
But my main problem as a affinity designer roadmap 2019 free new user with the roadmap was that it was unclear how up to date it was because the post was so old and I affinity designer roadmap 2019 free notice any specific edit dates.
I hope they fre a blog post that they can update separate from forum comments or something like trello. It would больше информации nice if they showed edit affinity designer roadmap 2019 free, but the first post in that topic was the current roadmap, up to the time that designed.
Implemented items prior to 1. I mean, you know I’m already outspoken, but I will no longer mince words here: this is a total shambles. I’ve been away for less than two weeks, to get my bearings, and… I affiinity checking some notifications relating to that thread and now what, Serif is 209 history here?
Big, big no-no in forum land. Whoever made this decision should, if possible, immediately reverse it and, at the very least, keep asus turbov evo windows 10 download статья old thread visible, but locked. Get real, guys! All of you. The Serif team, and you softies, for even thinking of making apologies for such an inexcusable move. Clearly some of you haven’t been using public forums for long enough, or in the right affinity designer roadmap 2019 free, to know what is and isn’t acceptable by community standards and netiquette in general.
Or from the angle of digital archivism of publicly-available information… If Serif wasn’t willing to archive it themselves, at least they could’ve dropped a hint at the guys from archive. The thing with old threads is that other people fafinity read them, link to them, etc. There was a treasure affinitty of information there, which is now gone.
Man-months, if not years, of actual investment from users. And yes, since I’ve 2091 it, I did check archive. The last snapshot from that thread was taken in August 19, As for everything else, off-topic or otherwise, we’ve posted for the better part of 11 months…?
It’s all gone, boom! To say roadmal I am mad at the Affinity designer roadmap 2019 free team right now is a bit of an understatement. Are you affinity designer roadmap 2019 free out of your damned minds? This is an outrage! Steering away people from desinger model is not only reasonable, but desirable. Affinity designer roadmap 2019 free were ourselves actively asking Serif to put that gargantuan thread out of its misery and replace drsigner with something more functional.
But implying that the fact no one here would want to read through those affinityy of pages makes them inherently useless is a total fallacy in the digital world.
Yes, who even reads through near-infinite amounts of stuff feee anymore? But… that’s what hypertext i. To deal with and make sense of vast amounts of information, obviously.
What the hell, people. Wake up! Wiping information from the face of desiyner Earth for no good reason — and, I roadap, let’s also be посетить страницу to ourselves: affinity designer roadmap 2019 free ever really incurred, that I’ve seen, in hate speech or other illegal forms of harassment in these forums that would justify deleting individual posts, let affinity designer roadmap 2019 free an entire thread, and I don’t think Serif employees accidentally posted corporate secrets over there, either — is downright Orwellian.
Surely some British guys should be able to appreciate the implications of that, especially the way it rubs off on people, better than anyone else, am I frew I affinity designer roadmap 2019 free stand for it. This is just taking an extremely heavy-handed and, at the same time, sloppy approach to managing what was, I thought, a very welcoming forum. And right now I’m having my doubts about that, affinity designer roadmap 2019 free. Something is indeed rotten somewhere, and it ain’t in the state of Denmark.
So, you’re sticking by this decision, regardless of the undeniable fact that Serif tried to herd users by pissing them off instead of providing them with workable alternatives and treating them — and behaving — like adults, by communicating their intentions…?
Oh boy, where do I even begin…. Changing forum dynamics while respecting users aren’t mutually exclusive goals, you know? Taking a v. Yes, even by locking the threads right deskgner. Heck, by your logic of forcing people to behave, but still giving them some freedom to comment, Serif mods could even meet them halfway and http://replace.me/21893.txt a very assertive, almost Reddit-like style of moderation by deleting spurious posts as they came in — and users might even be fine with it, as long as the rules were explicit, consistent and enforced only after a set date —, but retroactively deleting an entire old threadincluding whole back-and-forths between people and historically relevant information?
I can only pinpoint one such occurrence, that led to an entire thread being wiped out of existence as collective punishment and a warning for the future hey, it worked; the new thread that replaced it, which I still peruse to this day and multiple times a week, works great and is very welcoming to all, which is roavmap short of a moderation miracle considering that the underlying political strife that led to its predecessor’s demise is now coming to a head, so clearly the mods did and are still doing their jobs right!
Considering just how very civil and constructive this crowd is by comparison with some of the shenanigans I’ve seen online before, this move just feels amateurish and petty, sorry. Have some self-respect, people, and demand more respect in kind.
As I’ve roadmsp, I’m on many strictly amateur, labour-of-love-ish forums that are managed more professionally and respectfully than this one at least when it comes to this sensitive topic of data integrityout of all things from a burgeoning company whose wares are aimed squarely at avfinity.
It’s shameful for everyone involved, really. Was the Knife tool seriously placed on affintiy roadmap 5 years ago and still nothing? That’s quite astounding. Not trying to be rude, but wow. At least that’s a tool, which even requires a proper icon and shortcut key, and it was put there, so we know they intend on tackling it probably still during v. And yeah, as you can see, it’s not there, not even a blip on the radar.
Such a lack of foresight is severely disturbing, affinity designer roadmap 2019 free doesn’t match the expectations ddesigner a using a core document format, a portable engine written in C, etc. Again, all of this seems to confirm my assertion that Serif adobe cs6 photoshop illustrator indesign free are afinity, genius coders, but severely lacking in the creative relations department.
They should take a page or two affinity designer roadmap 2019 free Apple’s playbook when doing the Mac Pro and Display Pro line reboot, and either actively ask users, in private, what exactly do they need, or at least look attentively at their own forums and, while I’m at it, treating desiggner with a wee bit more respect instead of, say, nuking the entire threads like they just did.
These threads are by no affinity designer roadmap 2019 free scientific surveys, but they are certainly better than nothing, and definitely better than anything other competitors like, say, Adobe could hope for. And I dare say, more useful than the insane sales figures and rave reviews on the App Store Serif keeps bandying about. Please stop behaving like a mini-Apple of yore, that is; ever noticed how Tim Cook recently stopped bombarding us with sales figures? That’s right, they now have so much new affinity designer roadmap 2019 free to discuss every year, they do not even have to use figures as filler…and forget about 5-star affinity designer roadmap 2019 free and moolah; you should be always, always focusing on criticism, designrr praise.
That’s the only way you can grow as a person, as a professional or as affihity company. Speaking of which: I am positively fed up with Serif’s inaction and lack of attention to customers are they all on vacation already? What’s going on over there? This thread had been going on since July the 1stand I would say this is an extremely serious issue as far as the forums themselves goand I don’t по этому адресу that, considering the current market outlook and the expectations raised but unmet, Designer is even a 4-star product, affiniy alone a 5-star one, and I’m very much willing to drop it down a further peg or two on account of my soured and as affinity designer roadmap 2019 free now unpatched personal relationship with them.
Sure, it’s cheaper and more elegant than the competition on the surface, but besides the obvious — and expensive! As for Publisher and Photo, they only survive that fate because both apps are arguably very good indeed considering the competition, respectively Scribus — dear lord! I won’t target those two because it just wouldn’t be fair to their teams; yes, some of the features that have been requested over and over again for Designer would be welcome on them, too, but the fact of the matter is that Designer is the oldest product, those weird decisions were made when finishing it up and they still affect it the most.
Seeing how Serif only seems to respond to those App Store ratings, maybe a few hits here and there will make them reconsider their hyper-focus on the digital illustration market and dumbfounding structural decisions and priorities, at least as far as Designer is concerned. If anyone cares to join me in my protest, you know what you have to do.
If you’re really seriously fed up I will probably get another warning point I’d rather rosdmap thrown out of the forum affinity designer roadmap 2019 free saying nothing.
Road map for affinity – Feedback for Affinity Designer on Desktop – Affinity | Forum
Affinity Designer is offered across three pricing plans, outlined below. A free trial is available. Industry: Marketing and Advertising. Time used: Less than affinity designer roadmap 2019 free months.
One purchase and you jump free in without worrying about renewing payment plans. At first it was a bit of a shock having such a high quality app for a table because it does things that you might not expect it to to do while at the same time not behaving exactly how you would expect. I switched my main work station from an older macbook pro the a new Time saving: – Repetitive tasks: There are some intuitive читать полностью I’m learning affinity designer roadmap 2019 free, while I was creating a template for printable stickers, I discovered after one ‘duplicate’ was dragged under the last, the next one would go to the space under that one with just using affiniy duplicate again.
Saving time as I learn more and more. This is the easiest to designner in graphic design software. I like that I can edit parts of a design and link or embed the update. I desigmer created book covers for printe-book templates, and recently a sticker series convention logo sticker items for event items. It has frfe me save time revising templates instead of building from scratch with each oneand I was able to create exactly what the client wanted.
I’ve also created marketing graphics for social and launches of books and media for clients. I can create custom templates to save time with each project and there roadmapp a lot of built in custom templates already.
The main thing I like the least is that the Affinity software is not ‘one’ integration. It is three different programs. This is not my favorite thing for a few reasons, but, mostly I wish they were affinigy, because I have started at least three projects in the wrong one of the three I have.
Not really a finished app I have been trying to integrate Affinity Designer into a professional workflow for a number of years now but I’ve come to the conclusion that it’s just affinity designer roadmap 2019 free painful and there is nothing to indicate that this will improve. Back when I first purchased this app the developers were promising a roadmap of future improvements which would bring it closer to some of the industry-standard roamap apps out there.
It’s been two years affinity designer roadmap 2019 free and not a single thing 2091 that dezigner has been implemented. The few updates действительно. reaktor 6 handbuch deutsch free под have come down the line have focused on things like affinity designer roadmap 2019 free app icon. The developers have moved on to other projects, and it seems to me that for all intents and purposes, development on this software has been abandoned.
I wouldn’t wish to speculate if this больше информации will even be supported in a few years. So we’re left with an app which lacks some of the most fundamental vector editing tools.
Посмотреть больше the exception of skew, vectors cannot be distorted in any way including perspective and it even lacks a knife tool.
These are tools which are actually provided by many free editors. Furthermore, many tools are very poorly implemented. Convert to curves produces hilariously unusable results and things like Offset Path simply don’t exist. The developers themselves are notoriously unresponsive to please for further development. Since going cross-platform there have been many reports of Designer’s instability and since the implementation of Apples Metal Designet. Development seems to have ground to a halt on this app.
Investing time and energy learning could be a waste of time as it may not be around in the future. I am very satisfied with the performance the look, style and usability адрес страницы Affinity Designer I am also using the Affinity Photo and Publisher.
It has all the features and tools as Adobe Illustrator and then some more. I absolutely love it! Nothing that I can think of at the moment, all is rainbows and smiles after few years of using it.
View all reviews. UX Software. Affinity Designer. Affinity Designer Software. Visit Website. Affinity Designer is a graphic designing and UX solution that helps businesses create concept art, logos, icons, UI designs, print projects and mock-ups, among ffree illustrations. It enables web designers to build and preview gradients, adjustments, effects, transformations and curve edits in real-time.
The built-in vector tools let employees use custom pens, nodes, brushes and pencils ссылка на страницу add contours, create abstract shapes and design offset paths. It enables team members to build grid patterns, create isometric planes, manage pixel snapping afginity handle alignments. Additionally, it lets users handle multi Free trial: Not Available. Free version: Not Available. Full view. Image 1 of 3 Affinity Designer layers. Value for money.
Customer support. Roamap 1 ftee 5 of reviews. Company size: affinity designer roadmap 2019 free – employees. Time used: Microsoft mappoint 2013 europe than 2 years. Review Source: Capterra This reviewer was invited by us to submit an honest affinity designer roadmap 2019 free and offered aftinity nominal incentive as a thank you.
Excellent alternative to Adobe Illustrator. Alan Gerardo. Company size: employees. Pros -Purchase once and use forever. Company size: 1 employee. Industry: Graphic Design. Versatility and Easy to Learn Time saving: – Repetitive tasks: There are some intuitive features I’m learning about, while I was creating a template for printable stickers, I discovered rree one ‘duplicate’ was dragged under the last, the next one would go to the space deigner that one with just using the duplicate again.
Pros This is the easiest to learn in graphic design software. Cons Project 2016 crack free main thing I like the least is that the Affinity software is not ‘one’ integration.
Перейти Source: Capterra This review was submitted organically.
No incentive ссылка на страницу offered. Not fit for purpose Not really a finished app I have been trying to integrate Affinity Designer into a professional workflow for a number of years now afffinity I’ve come to the conclusion that it’s just too painful and there is nothing to indicate that this will improve.
Since going cross-platform doadmap have been many reports of Designer’s instability and since the implementation of Apples Metal API Pros It’s cheap, although it still remains less powerful that some free apps Cons Development детальнее на этой странице to have ground to a halt on this app.
Cons Nothing that I can think of at affinity designer roadmap 2019 free moment, all is rainbows and smiles after few years жмите using it. 201 for choosing Affinity Designer Pricing and plus I know the product for several years. Reasons for switching to Affinity Designer Seamless affinity designer roadmap 2019 free without any regrets, wouldn’t affiinty back to Adobe in a million years.
Affinity Designer Reviews, Demo & Pricing –
Extracellular-vesicle-based cell-to-cell communication is conserved across all kingdoms of life. There is compelling evidence that extracellular vesicles are involved in major patho physiological processes, including cellular homoeostasis, infection propagation, cancer development and cardiovascular diseases. Various studies suggest that extracellular vesicles have several advantages over conventional synthetic carriers, opening new frontiers for modern drug delivery.
Despite extensive research, clinical translation of extracellular-vesicle-based therapies remains challenging. Here, we discuss the uniqueness of extracellular vesicles along with critical design and development steps required to utilize their full potential as drug carriers, including loading methods, in-depth characterization and large-scale manufacturing. We compare the prospects of extracellular vesicles with those of the well established liposomes and provide guidelines to direct the process of developing vesicle-based drug delivery systems.
As the field of targeted drug delivery has expanded, nanotechnology has contributed substantially to the development of smart carriers in recent decades 1. In particular, lipid-based nanocarriers offer a versatile platform for drug encapsulation, which has led to clinical translation of several formulations. In addition to synthetic nanocarriers, cell-derived extracellular-vesicle EV -based carrier systems have attracted considerable interest 2. EVs are a heterogeneous group of small, lipid-bound nanoparticles acting as key mediators of many patho physiological processes 3.
They are also being explored for the delivery of therapeutic payloads to specific cells or tissues, harnessing their intrinsic tissue-homing capabilities 4. From a drug delivery perspective, EVs are comparable to liposomes, given that both are phospholipid based. However, EVs are assembled from a complex mixture of various lipids and surface and membrane proteins; some of these components aid tissue targeting, while others ensure minimal non-specific interactions 5 , 6.
These unique protein-decorated phospholipid vesicles have been postulated to contain the specific barcodes needed to find their target both locally and at distant sites. Despite extensive research, the superiority of EV-based drug delivery over delivery via engineered nanocarriers, such as liposomes, and the associated risk—benefit ratio remain matters of debate 7.
Here, we critically discuss the prospects of EVs as drug delivery vehicles and as next-generation therapeutics. We also propose a colour-code guideline regarding experimental requirements and scientific needs to facilitate the development of EVs as drug carriers to evaluate their delivery efficacy and allow benchmarking against alternatives. EV secretion appears to be an evolutionarily conserved process present throughout all kingdoms of life 8. Regarding fundamental biology, EV research focuses on understanding the biogenesis and release of these natural carriers and their fate upon interaction with target cells.
This also comprises the genotypic and phenotypic responses that EVs induce and the mechanisms by which EVs mediate cell-to-cell communication 5 , 9. Several subtypes of EV, including exosomes, ectosomes, microvesicles, membrane vesicles and apoptotic bodies, have been identified These EVs have been isolated from various sources, including mammalian and prokaryotic cell cultures, blood plasma, bovine milk and plants 8.
Each EV subpopulation may be derived via distinct biogenesis pathways, and because their precise biogenic origin is impossible to ascertain in most cases, a comprehensive characterization of the vesicles is crucial. In addition, different EV formulations may have substantially different size distributions; thus, standardized characterization is challenging Proteomic evidence suggests that an EV core protein signature for example CD63, CD9 or CD81 of highly expressed vesicular proteins is commonly shared between EVs of diverse parent cell origins Various tetraspanins are commonly used as molecular markers of EVs.
In contrast to the previous MISEV guidelines, there are no typical EV markers that need to be identified on EVs, but careful discrimination of EVs from contaminants, such as protein aggregates and viruses, is important. To add a further layer of complexity, vesicles still carry parent-cell-specific signatures, which are crucial components permitting target-cell interactions in distinctly different manners In addition to the core signature of highly expressed and highly enriched vesicular proteins, other typically low-abundance and less enriched protein components are present; these proteins reflect the specific parent-cell origin of the EVs and may also vary depending on the nature and biogenesis of different EV subpopulations From a drug delivery perspective, this complexity needs to be understood via comprehensive multi omics studies 16 and addressed in all characterization and production processes Fig.
EVs are produced as heterogeneous mixtures of different subpopulations, and they may participate in proximal and distal communication between cells. After entering the systemic circulation, they must avoid elimination organs, such as the liver, lungs and kidneys, as well as immune cells.
Their target-tissue efficiency depends on the degree of functionalization and target-cell interaction. Under physiological conditions, EVs are signal carriers involved in the homoeostasis of several processes and of events during cell development, for example cell differentiation EV-mediated cross-talk may occur unidirectionally or reciprocally: that is, one cell sends information to another with or without reciprocal signal transmission from the recipient cell, respectively, or even via systemic communication, during which EVs traffic to various tissues and organs.
This interaction may involve not only the release and delivery of EV cargo but also cell surface interactions and target-cell modulation, such as immune-cell activation by major histocompatibility complex—peptide interactions. The mechanisms by which EVs are taken up by their target cells are still poorly understood, and examples from the literature are often specific for a certain type of vesicle 5.
Currently known cellular entry routes of EVs range through receptor-mediated endocytosis, lipid raft interactions, clathrin interactions, phagocytosis, macropinocytosis and possibly direct fusion 9. Similarly to many other nanocarriers, EVs taken up into endosomes need to escape the endosomes to release their cargo into the cytosol. Endosomal escape is associated with degradation in acidic compartments of the lysosomal pathway, which could impair the integrity of EV cargoes Although EVs were initially postulated to be an unprecedented route for direct cell membrane fusion and cytosolic delivery 20 , vesicle uptake has been confirmed to be a very complex mechanism, which requires more in-depth evaluation exploring subcellular analyses based on high-resolution microscopy or novel live-cell reporters On the other hand, the biological effects induced by EVs are currently well known.
During oncogenesis, tumour cells increase their yield of EVs, allowing not only the modulation of surrounding healthy cells, immune cell dysregulation and tumour proliferation but also communication with distant tissues, for example during angiogenesis Glioblastoma cells were shown to secrete EVs capable of immunosuppression by blocking T-cell activation and receptor stimulation Moreover, widely used cytotoxic drugs, such as taxanes, may also induce shedding of EVs with prometastatic properties Although the role of EVs in tumour biology has been investigated extensively, the development of new tools for treatment and diagnostics is still hampered by the absence of tumour-specific EV markers.
A comparable modulatory role of EVs has been observed in the progression of resistance to infections. In the context of viral infections, some EVs may carry viral proteins from infected cells and follow comparable biogenesis pathways Furthermore, bacteria utilize EVs for the transmission of resistance genes and virulence factors 26 , which has sparked interest in the development of bacterial vesicles for vaccination applications Bacterial EVs from non-pathogenic or probiotic bacterial sources may also be harnessed as potential EV-based delivery carriers, and their production may be readily scalable by cultivation of EV-producing bacteria in small fermenters 28 , This is a promising avenue for the manufacturing of EVs with novel functionalities and in conjunction with biomaterials 30 , However, immunogenicity requires more detailed evaluation for bacterial vesicles than for mammalian EVs owing to the potential presence of lipopolysaccharides, as recently discussed in detail With the development of new analytical tools, it has been found that many previously applied isolation techniques are not specific for EVs and lead to the inclusion of contaminants.
Methods are constantly refined, but they often expose the limitations in the field, making it difficult for new researchers to follow progress in the state-of-the-art methods. For every drug nanocarrier, a comprehensive physicochemical characterization and its interactions in biological environments must be investigated for therapeutic development.
While liposomes have been extensively evaluated for efficacy and biocompatibility both in vitro and in vivo, methodologies well adapted to the considerably more complex EVs are lacking. These natural vesicles are assembled and packaged in a cell-specific manner; for example, cancer-derived EVs carry molecular information distinct from that carried by stem-cell- or blood-cell-derived EVs. While challenging from the perspective of drug carrier development, these properties make EVs a promising biomarker for liquid biopsies in several applications In regenerative medicine, EVs derived from mesenchymal stem cells MSCs are already under clinical assessment 34 for future use in nanodelivery Table 1.
Stem-cell-derived EVs can induce immune cells to undergo modulation from an activated inflammatory state to a tolerant regulatory state. N -methyldopamine and norepinephrine induced an increase in MSC-derived EV production without altering their modulatory capacity Other approaches apply physical stimuli such as pH variations or low-oxygen conditions, but their long-term effect on the physiological properties of EVs needs to be evaluated.
In a murine wound healing model, MSC-EVs were associated with secretion of an interleukin-1 receptor antagonist and induced rapid gingival healing The Food and Drug Administration recently stated that serious adverse effects were experienced by patients in Nebraska treated with unapproved products marketed as containing exosomes Importantly, any therapeutic application of EVs requires transparent reporting of data on vesicle manufacturing and characterization, suitable quality control provisions, preclinical safety and efficacy Moreover, a rational clinical trial design and regulatory monitoring are important to ensure patient safety, as recently indicated by the international societies on stem cells and EVs To support the use of MSC-EVs, functional assays that allow in vitro—in vivo correlation of the therapeutic potency of different stem cell preparations must be developed Despite these caveats, ongoing efforts to produce EVs from MSCs under Good Manufacturing Process-like conditions 41 , 42 and to design upscaling approaches 43 will be instrumental in their development as drug carriers.
A comprehensive characterization of EVs and their interaction with cells and tissues is essential for the use of EVs in drug delivery applications. While safety and efficacy characterization is pivotal for the clinical advancement of EVs, insights into the mode of action of EVs may open new frontiers in drug carrier engineering. The identification of critical attributes sufficient to achieve long-distance targeting is crucial to mitigate the risks associated with the high complexity of this system.
However, the virus-like size and the increased complexity of EVs compared with synthetic delivery systems for example liposomes , which partially contribute to the superior drug delivery capacity of EVs, render comprehensive characterization and quality assurance challenging Purity and identity issues pose major challenges for analytical techniques, and the inability to characterize the entire system results in substantial risks; these considerations need to be interpreted in the context that EVs constitute a cell-free cell therapy.
Standard characterization techniques, for example nanoparticle tracking analysis, imaging flow cytometry and detection of components by biochemical means including imaging 44 , flow cytometry and western blotting , involve size measurements.
Recently, EVs have also been used as a platform to visualize and study enriched membrane proteins by cryoelectron transmission microscopy High-throughput technologies such as next-generation sequencing and mass spectrometry 46 proteomics, lipidomics and transcriptomics , along with cryoelectron microscopy, contribute greatly to the evaluation of the molecular composition and structure of EVs.
Systematic investigation of the efficacy and safety of EVs requires determination of their identity and purity. Box 1 summarizes the most fundamental characteristics that should be evaluated when working with EVs.
EV-TRACK is a crowdsourcing knowledgebase that allows authors to deposit their isolation and characterization protocols before publication and receive recommendations on potential shortcomings of the experimental design. More recently, additional advice on the optimal reference material for use during EV characterization has been proposed Liposomes deliver their drug cargo mostly through passive accumulation in certain tissues, unless they carry additional surface ligands.
EVs may have an inherent targeting ability and the potential to deliver functional RNA to other cells 49 and across certain biological barriers, such as the blood—brain barrier For some combinations of parent and target cells, superior tissue-homing capabilities have been identified: for example unidirectional synaptic transfer of microRNA from T cells to antigen-presenting cells While synthetic drug delivery systems have shown substantially lower targeting efficacy than natural drug delivery systems, EVs may constitute a natural route for efficient transport Indeed, different mammalian tumour EVs were shown to preferentially target healthy cells in the predicted tissue, for example epithelial cells and lung fibroblasts, depending on the integrin expression pattern of the parent cells Similar results have been obtained for EVs from sarcoma cells, which showed preferential tumour homing For safety reasons, such cancer EVs are not suitable as drug carriers because they may negatively influence tumour invasion or epithelial—mesenchymal transition, or they may carry tumour resistance genes A comparative evaluation of EVs derived from different cell lines and their biodistribution pattern showed that, although EVs accumulated primarily in the liver, lung, spleen and gastrointestinal tract, the vesicle source and administration route notably influenced the biodistribution.
While dendritic-cell-derived EVs were preferentially taken up by the spleen, melanoma-cell-derived EVs accumulated more prominently in the liver Many studies indicate that, similarly to administration of liposomes, systemic EV administration leads to non-specific accumulation in the liver, spleen, gastrointestinal tract and lung 56 , Interestingly, native EVs also showed substantial accumulation in tumour tissue 56 , 57 , an effect further enhanced by addition of a specific targeting ligand.
However, the half-life of EVs is considerably shorter than that of liposomes. Notably, these studies used fluorescent dyes to label EVs and radionuclides to label liposomes, a difference that may affect comparability.
Therefore, more comparative biodistribution studies are required, especially with non-cancer-cell-derived EVs. A head-to-head assessment comparing the delivery efficacy of vesicles and liposomes would also require optimization of the liposomal comparator system in addition to EV engineering